World War 2 – Defense of the Philippines

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Published on April 18, 2021 by

The soldier reading these pages would do well to reflect on the wisdom of this statement exhibited in a Japanese shrine . What want to him who has not tasted defeat ? Defeat brings into sharp focus the causes that lead to failure and provides a fruitful field of study for those soldiers in layman who seek in the past . Lessons for the future . Orlando Ward , Chief of military history , 1952 . So he’s screaming the Earth . How much for me now , e . Do you want my opinion ? Our team you take mere hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor , Japanese forces attacked the U . S . Commonwealth of the Philippines, as part of its Pacific wide plan to seize much-needed resource is and Manila’s strategically important harbor .

Over the next five months , American and Filipino forces would conduct a stalwart defense of the islands that would cost many lives and end in defeat while disrupting Japan’s plan for conquest in the region . Mhm by 7 December 1941 . The Philippines , a chain of 7000 islands in the Pacific , have been a US territory for over 40 years , located over 11,000 kilometers from San Francisco , but just under 3000 kilometers from Tokyo .

It was America’s first line of defense against the threat of Japanese expansionism in the Pacific , which Japan already in control of the island of Formosa to the north , the Marshal , Caroline and Gilbert Islands to the east and occupying a significant part of China to the northwest . The U . S military garrison in the Philippines was all that prevented Japan from consolidating its gains and driving south to seize the Dutch East Indies valuable resource is of oil and rubber .

The American military , however , had concerns about the feasibility of defending the Philippines as early as 1914 . Then second Lieutenant George C . Marshall was able to demonstrate during maneuvers simulating a Japanese invasion of Luzon , how easily the capital city of Manila and its major port could fall to aggressors with the coastline longer than the United States .

The military appreciated just how difficult it would be to defend the Philippines effectively . Various changes in US policy also undermined the defense of the Philippines . He’s included the Washington Naval Treaty signed in 1922 which halted US construction of new fortifications in the Pacific in exchange for Japan limiting the size of its fleet . With only one reinforced stronghold said at the mouth of Manila Bay on the island of Corregidor , Philippines , Defenses were questionable .

The Navy expects to solve the naval defense problems that may confront the United States in the Navy’s traditional way . Without a land , it expects to stand on its own feet in providing protection to the United States . This realization was evident in the joint Army and Navy’s basic war plan for the Philippines . Updated in the spring of 1941 or Plan Orange three prescribed a limited defense of the Philippines that focused primarily on denying an invader the use of Manila Bay . It also outlined a predetermined fallback plan for civilians and soldiers that acknowledged the difficulty of halting a Japanese invasion force that U . S intelligence estimated could reach 300,000 troops in a month’s time as the Japanese established a blockade against U . S . Reinforcements and resupply . As such , the plan for the defense of the Philippines is best understood as a delay if properly reinforced .

It was hoped that the islands garrison could delay Japanese forces long enough for additional troops to arrive and partners to commit to the fight . A variation of a retrograde A delay is when a force under pressure trade space for time by slowing down the enemy’s momentum and inflicting maximum damage on enemy forces without becoming decisively engaged . In 1935 the U . S . Congress voted to make the Philippines a commonwealth with full autonomy at the end of a 10 year transitional period . This change to self governance shifted the responsibility for the defense of the islands to the Philippines government and its people .

However , it complicated command and control and unity of effort between US forces and the Philippine army . In response , the Philippine National Assembly voted to stand up a force of 10,000 soldiers , supplemented by 400,000 reserve troops , at the request of President Manuel Kison . Douglas MacArthur , recently retired from the U . S . Army , was asked to oversee the creation of the Philippine army as field marshal and military advisor to the Commonwealth Government of the Philippines .

From the start , MacArthur faced serious difficulties in training and preparing the Filipino forces for the future . With some 65 languages spoken among them , Filipino troops were often unable to effectively communicate among themselves or with their leaders . Additionally , the absence of schools for commissioned and noncommissioned officers was a serious obstacle to standardizing tactics , techniques and procedures across the highly diverse force . Severe shortages of weapons , uniforms and housing also hampered the Philippine army’s training and preparation .

Such handicaps were magnified by the lack of military vehicles and permanent roads for transporting soldiers , a feature particularly ominous for forces tasked with conducting a delay . We’re maintaining a mobility advantage over the attacking force is a necessary prerequisite for success . Thes handicaps were complicated by a military communication infrastructure that relied heavily on unreliable civilian telephone and telegraph systems .

The Philippine army , however , was not the only military unit training on Luzon prior to the Japanese attack . 1941 the U . S . Army’s Philippine Department , under the command of Major General George Gruner , was headquartered out of Fort William McKinley with over 22,000 soldiers . Its largest unit , the Philippine Division , was commanded by Major General Jonathan M . Wainwright and led by American officers .

Though these two forces were originally intended to operate independently , the U . S forces under Gruner and the Philippine Army under MacArthur began combined training exercises in July 1941 as war with Japan appeared more likely . Japan , a member of the Axis Alliance , had moved military units into French Indochina and assume protectorate status over the territory for the two generals . This posturing indicated that the Japanese could be preparing for additional offensive operations in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific . They say trouble always comes in . Three . Take a good close look at this trio . Remember these faces ? Yeah , remember them well . Did you ever meet them ? Don’t hesitate .

Intelligence analysts assess adversary actions and the posture of their forces to determine their intent and identify indications that can be used to warn of a pending attack . Indications and warnings are tied to timelines that informed commanders of how long before adversary is capable of attacking , in which course of action they’re likely to pursue . Thes timelines enable the planning and response framework to react in accordance with the severity of the indication and the estimated enemy course of action . Commanders can then execute measures to deter the enemy from continued hostile acts , while posturing friendly forces to respond if deterrence fails . The occupation of French Indochina triggered a response from the United States designed to ward off further aggression by the Japanese . After placing a freeze on all U . S based Japanese assets , President Franklin Roosevelt then halted shipments of rubber , iron and fuel to Japan and began planning for the military reinforcement of the Philippines .

President Roosevelt’s actions , designed to deter further Japanese aggression in the region are examples of flexible deterrent options or f Dios f . Dios are established to deter actions before or during a crisis and maybe used to prepare for future operations . They’re developed and executed using each instrument of national power , diplomatic , informational , military and economic , but are most effective when used in concert . F d oes provide options for decision makers during emerging crises to allow for gradual increases in pressure to avoid unintentionally provoking full scale combat , while simultaneously enabling leaders to develop the situation and gain a better understanding of the adversaries , capabilities and intentions .

Already reeling under trade restrictions imposed the previous year , this action pushed Japanese military leadership into a corner , lacking the necessary materials to continue their plans for conquest . They made the decision to go to war by December 1941 if negotiations failed to reverse US sanctions . Sensing the coming conflict , President Roosevelt moved to defend the Philippines by combining the territorial Philippine army with the U . S Army units already stationed there . He then placed MacArthur in command of the newly combined force designated as United States Army Forces Far East or use a fee , and charged him with defending the islands .

MacArthur was also recalled the active duty in the US Army and was soon promoted to the rank of general earlier that Spring War plan Orange three have been included as part of the National War plan , known as Rainbow Five . National Plan was based on a recently signed agreement between the United States and Great Britain , this gay priority for supply and support to the war in Europe over all other areas of conflict . Establishing a timetable for completion by April 1942 . The general’s plan called for a reinforced defense that incorporated the islands natural terrain features to stop and repulse attacking forces on the beaches while relying heavily on U . S Army air power to actively attrit the enemy . By building his defense around the terrain and natural obstacles present on the island , General MacArthur illustrated a central tenet of defensive operations According to Army doctrine , Commander always takes advantage of the terrain when planning how to position forces and conduct operations .

The terrain dictates where a delaying force can orient on a moving enemy force and ambush it . Ah commander , conducting operations and compartmentalized terrain select locations that restrict the enemy’s movement and prevent the enemy force from fully exploiting its combat superiority . Chief of Staff General George C . Marshall was personally familiar with the Philippines and , after reviewing McArthur’s plan , authorized immediate transportation of the essential supplies and reinforcements that he had requested to reinforce . The Philippines Army leadership deployed several National Guard units , the 200 Coastal Artillery Regiment and the 192nd and 194th Tank battalions equipped with M three Stuart tanks .

MacArthur also received reinforcements for his air arm to include P 40 Warhawk fighter planes and B 17 Flying Fortress bombers . However , shortages and shipping space meant that some items were delayed or did not arrive . In one instance , air crews arrived in Manila ahead of their aircraft just before the start of hostilities in December . Since delivery of their A 24 banshee dive bombers never occurred . Thes airman spent the rest of the war , fighting his infantry to compensate for his lack of updated equipment and well trained personnel . McArthur’s plan relied heavily on close integration with the Filipino forces .

Recalling all 10 divisions of the Philippine army from reserve for training and refitting , he task organized them into five distinct forces . The North Luzon Force , under the command of Major General Wainwright , defended strategically important areas of Luzon . He’s included the only beaches wide enough and deep enough to accommodate a large scale amphibious landing . The North Luzon Force also had responsibility for the Bataan Peninsula war plan . Orange is designated fallback area should the Japanese invasion proved unstoppable . Organizationally , North Luzon forces consisted of the horse mounted 26 Cavalry Regiment and the first Battalion , 45th Infantry , both of which were fully equipped and extensively trained Philippine scouts .

Thes units were accompanied by two batteries of 155 millimeter artillery and one battery of 2.95 inch mountain guns . Three Philippine Army infantry divisions the 11th 21st and the 31st completed Wainwright’s command MacArthur plan to support the North Luzon Force with the Philippines 71st Infantry Division held in reserve at Manila . This division could only be released with MacArthur’s permission following the war . Wainwright recall the situation when he took over command of the North Luzon Force . Let me give you an example of the training status of the Philippine armies divisions . On the eve of the attack , infantrymen trained on an average of 3 to 4 weeks before being forced to fight . Engineers got no training at all . Artillery never fired a practice shot . Indeed , its first shot .

It was aimed in the general direction of the approaching enemy Infantry had no combat practice , no combat training and little or no rifle or machine gun practice . The divisions did not have a full complement of artillery . There was no means of transportation for any artillery . We got practically no transportation for any purpose . The divisions were badly undermanned . They were all short of ammunition . We were terribly short hand grenades , 50 caliber machine gun , an infantry mortar ammunition . My command was spread over an area 75 miles from north to south , 100 miles from east to west , But the only means of communication with the various divisions was through the public telephone lines .

South Luzon force commanded by Brigadier General George M . Parker Jr . Was responsible for defending his own covering the capital of Manila all the way south to the tip of Luzon . His forces were comprised of two Philippine Army infantry divisions , the 41st and 51st . They found themselves in the same training and equipment shortage situation as the North Luzon Force . They were supplemented by a battery from the 86th Field Artillery of the Philippine Scouts .

MacArthur’s third force was organized to defend the busy in Mindanao island’s area . It fell under the commander , Brigadier General William F . Sharp , and included three Philippine Army infantry divisions 61st 81st and 101st The Harbor Defense Force under the command of Major General George F . More , was MacArthur’s fourth force and was comprised of four regiments of coastal artillery and one regiment of air defense artillery .

The fifth and final force , located north of Manila , was the reserve force under MacArthur’s direct command along with You Saffy headquarters , the reserves operational forces consistent of the Philippine 91st Division and the U . S . Philippine Division , consisting of three infantry regiments and the division artillery or Dave Rt .

It also included the first provisional Tank group consisting of two tank battalions . Rounding out General MacArthur’s command was the Far East Air Force commanded by Major General Lewis H . Brereton , which in December of 1941 was the largest concentration of Army Air Corps aircraft outside of the continental United States . Logistical support , including food , ammunition , weapons and medical supplies , were transferred from depots on Bataan and the island of Corregidor and distributed to each defending force . This was done to support MacArthur’s desire to defend as far forward as possible . The 16th Naval District , under the command of Rear Admiral Francis W . Rockwell , was also a vital part of the defense force , with installation that cavity , Olongapo and Corregidor .

It included cruisers , destroyers , submarines , patrol boats and the fourth Marine Regiment . The Wonder orders to assist in the defense of the Philippines . It remained independent of use a fee and instead reported to the U . S Asiatic fleet , headquartered in Manila under the command of Admiral Thomas C . Heart , a testament to the early growing pains associated with creating a joint force . This lack of a unified command was not unique to the Philippines and plagued US operations throughout much of the Pacific campaign from MacArthur and Rockwell , it upset unity of effort and further complicated their defense of the island . Running low on resource is in the summer of 1941 . The Japanese prioritized the seizing of the Dutch East Indies and the Malay Peninsula ahead of all other goals .

They were in their way , way had to be removed , committed the Japanese way to do this . They understood that the U . S naval forces stationed at Pearl Harbor needed to be neutralized on that . The threat from U . S . Naval and air power in the Philippines had to be addressed . Deciding on his final attack plans . In mid November , Japanese Imperial General Headquarters assigned Lieutenant General Masaharu Homma and his 14th Army to conquer the Philippines . Lieutenant General Hamas army was made up of the 16th and 48th Infantry divisions , augmented with additional armored regiments and mountain artillery brigades . Although they were called regiments , Japanese armor regiments were equivalent to American armor battalions and Japanese tanks were of poor quality . They’re medium tank being smaller than the American Stewart light tank .

The Japanese invasion of the Philippines was planned down to the hour and by integrating land , sea and air power , they quickly overwhelmed US and Filipino forces , establishing several key lodge mints . Japanese plans called for the complete destruction of the Far East air force and the seizure of several key airfields throughout the island chain . This would give the Japanese air superiority , enabling homeless divisions to attack without being harassed from the air . To do this , Japanese infantry would seize the key airfield on Bataan Island , north of Luzon , while fighters and bombers stationed on Formosa would attack airfields on Luzon . Japanese infantry would then continue to other fields at a party , Vegan and Legaspi further south , culminating with the seizure of the airfield at the bow on the large island of Mindanao , south of Luzon . With air superiority established and several airfields secured , the 14th Army would be free to begin its main landings on Luzon .

The 14th army’s main effort would then come ashore at Lingayen Gulf , some 200 kilometers north of Manila , and begin attacking towards the capital . A smaller force would land at Lemon Bay , 120 kilometers south of Manila , and proceed north to link up with the larger force in a combined assault on the city after capturing the capital . The Japanese could then sees Manila Bay and defeat any remaining U . S and Philippine forces on Luzon , placing them in firm control of the largest and most important island in the Philippines . Yeah theater attack on Pearl Harbor signaled the start of the invasion of the Philippines . US . Asiatic fleet headquarters in Manila was the first to be notified at 0 to 30 hours local time on 8 December .

General MacArthur , however , was not notified of the event until an hour later when his chief of staff heard the news over the radio . MacArthur immediately put his troops on alert , attacked four months earlier than intelligence estimates predicted , MacArthur had only a fraction of the necessary equipment and supplies he needed to defend the Philippines as the Japanese began their invasion . Majority of MacArthur soldiers and in particular the Philippine Army troops , lack even the most basic necessities , from boots and helmets to serviceable rifles and ammunition . More importantly , they lack the training necessary to fight his units in the field .

In contrast , the Japanese forces were better trained and well equipped with units having prior battlefield experience obtained during the ongoing Sino Japanese war . Concerned that his airfields and aircraft might suffer the same fate as those in Hawaii , Major General Brereton requested permission for his B seventeens to begin bombing the Japanese airfields on Formosa . However , due to delays , a miscommunication between Britain and MacArthur’s staff for origins , fighters and bombers did not mount an attack against Formosa . Instead , Japanese fighters and bombers based only 800 kilometers away on Formosa arrived over Clark and Eva airfields with little opposition from antiquated anti aircraft guns . Thea Enemy attack both facilities , destroying their radar equipment and strafing or bombing the aircraft that had been holding for permission to attack the Japanese .

According to plan . Japanese infantry landed unopposed on Bataan Island that same morning . They then proceeded to seize and secure the US airfield located there and to establish a base for the short range fighters . More importantly , the destruction of over half of Army Air Force assets at Clark and Eva airfields established Japanese air superiority over the Philippines on the first day of the war . Yeah , the theme . Next day , 9 December , Japanese bombers from Formosa struck Nichols Field , destroying more aircraft and seriously damaging the installation . Opposition was light understanding that his ships could not expect protection from aerial attack .

Admiral Heart dispatched the majority of his fleet south to Australia . Following their departure , Japanese attacked the naval facilities that cavity on 10 December as cavity burned Japanese infantry , supported by naval aircraft and gunfire from the Japanese fleet , landed on Comedian Island north of Luzon . The few US aircraft left operational attacked units of the second for most a regiment as it came ashore at Vegan and a party , sinking one Japanese mine sweeper and damaging four other vessels comprised of third battalion and half of the first Battalion , second for most a regiment . The 2000 strong Cano detachment came ashore at Vegan , another similarly sized force known as the Tanaka Detachment , comprised of the second Battalion and the other half of first Battalion . Second for most a regiment attacked at a party .

Thes multiple landings were supported by two heavy cruisers . Two destroyers and defensive counter air provided by fighter aircraft from Baton Island over the next few days to detachments broke out from their initial arguments at a party and vegan and began moving south towards Manila along the coast on Route three on 12 December 2500 Japanese soldiers , known as the Kimura Detachment , came ashore approximately 500 kilometers southeast of Manila . At Legaspi . General Parker , commander of the South Luzon Force , sent untried elements from the 41st and 51st Philippine Army divisions to counter attack . But these were soon routed by the better train Japanese .

After successfully seizing its objective at Legaspi , the commuter detachment began its march north on Route one to link up with the forces landing at Lemon Bay for the advance on Manila . Keeping to lieutenant general homeless Timetable for the taking of the Philippines enemy landings until now have been minor incursions . However , on 22 December homeless , main effort came ashore along the Lingayen Gulf , comprised of the entire Japanese 48 division with attached elements of the 16th division Hamas Lingayen Force Total just over 40,000 soldiers .

Following a carefully time plan that called for landings at three different locations along a 24 kilometer stretch of the Gulf , the first wave of Japanese landing craft approached the beaches at 0 500 beginning in the south units of the 47th Infantry Regiment and elements of the 48th Mountain artillery landed at the village of Agu , overcoming rough seas and weak resistance from unseasoned units of the 11th Philippine Infantry Division . The Japanese landed most of their forces with minimal loss . The middle landing was conducted by units of the first Formosa Infantry Regiment on elements of the 40th Mountain artillery at the village of Our in bay . The landings were virtually unopposed , and the first foremost troops soon turned south on Route three to join their comrades of the 47th Infantry Regiment who had landed at a booth .

Final landing two hours later by units of the comedy Media Catchment , composed primarily of the ninth Infantry Regiment , occurred further north at the village of Bo Wang . Moving ashore through rough waters , they briefly encountered stiff resistance from troops of the 12th Philippine Infantry Regiment before seizing the village . Breaking out from their lodge mint , they dispatch patrols along Route three to make contact with Colonel Tanaka’s detachment as it came south along the road , advancing against light resistance . Ah , unit of the comic Jim , A detachment attacked along the bow , Wang Beg , you wrote , that ran to Rosario through the Cordillera Mountains and then seized the airfield at No . Gillian the enemy success forced the 71st Philippine Regiment and elements of the 11th Philippine Division to withdraw . Meanwhile , the main body of the Kamajii Me detachment sees the village of bag you further east to prevent US forces from outflanking the landing force and to act as a rearguard for the Japanese .

Advance on Manila As the enemy began its move inland , Wainwright’s 21st division defended the southern shores this’ll f the soldiers of the 26 Calvary Philippine scouts led by Colonel Clinton a pierce to defend against Japanese movement south along Route three from the village of Peugeot . Rovio advancing south along Route three . Colonel He Fumi Mayes , first foremost a regiment on elements of the 48th Mountain Artillery , received little opposition from the inexperienced and lightly armed 11th Division . Has he advanced towards the village of Dom Ortiz . Along the way , they linked up with the 48th reconnaissance ninth Infantry Regiment on the fourth Tank Regiment . Both had come ashore earlier north of Dar Marti’s . After advancing out of a goo , Colonel Issam You , You , Nagy’s 47th Infantry and a battalion of the 40th Mountain Artillery face weak resistance from a battalion of the 11th Infantry Division , which then retreated to damn Ortiz .

Aware of the growing advance on Marty’s , General Wainwright ordered the 26th Calvary to move from Poos Arrobio through Rosario and onto damn Ortiz to aid in its defense . When the 26 scout car platoon arrived down Marti’s , they found the town on occupied the platoon , then moved north on Route three , where it made contact with the Japanese 48th Reconnaissance and Fourth Tank Regiment . Unable to advance , the platoon returned to Dar Marty’s , where the 26th Calvary was ordered . Toe hold in a delaying action should have forced withdrawal of the North Luzon force become necessary . At 1300 Japanese aircraft , armor and infantry units began the attack on Dom Ortiz . In response , Colonel Pierce asked for additional support from General Wainwright , who requested a company of tanks from Brigadier General James Weaver , the Provisional Tank Group commander . Due to a fuel shortage . Weaver was only able to send a platoon of five tanks , all of which were either destroyed or damaged by 47 millimeter anti tank fire or the enemy’s tanks by 1600 additional Japanese units joined the battle and by 1900 damn Ortiz had fallen into Japanese hands . Order to withdraw .

Colonel Pierce’s Calvary paid a heavy price in lives and horses while performing successful delaying actions to protect the 11th divisions , right flank attacked by the Japanese Upon their arrival in Rosario , 26 Calvary Regiment was forced withdraw again , this time further to the south , where they were ordered to hold the road junction between Rosario and bag you until his defenses became untenable . By the morning of 23 December , elements of the 71st division were in place along Route three south of C San , preparing their defense , while the 26th Calvary past south through their position on their way to pose arrobio .

Although it may seem simple , a rearward passage of lines conducted under pressure from an attacking enemy is a difficult operation that requires close coordination and planning between the stationary and passing units to prevent fratricide , reroute passage of lines are also important , enabling operations for a delay or other retrograde maintaining enemy contact while allowing for the recovery of security or other forward forces . While similar in planning and execution to a forward passage of lines , a rearward passage of lines is more difficult , as the enemy likely has . The initiative and the rearward passing soldiers are often fatigue and disorganized from battle .

Friendly forces may also be more difficult to recognize because the enemy maybe intermixed with them . To mitigate these issues , the passing and stationary units co locate their command posts and agree upon clearly defined , often restrictive control measures . Three . Identify a battle handover line to delineate the area that the stationary unit commander will assume control of once two thirds of the passing force has crossed . They coordinate for fires and ensure the stationary force is capable of providing indirect fire support for the rearward passing force . Finally , if time is available , the units wreck annoyed with contact points , passage points , lanes and assembly areas the passing unit will use to pass through the stationary force . They also identify any obstacles and friendly battle positions in the A O .

The rearward passage of lines begins when the passing unit links up with the guides from the stationary unit at the predetermined contact points guides , then lead the passing force to the passage points and along the lanes through the stationary force . The order of March is typically sustainment units first , followed by the main command post functional units such as engineers and finally combat units . If the enemy force continues to press this attack during the passage , passing unit controls the battle , while the stationary unit monitors the passage of lines until the battle handover occurs . Once the passing unit hands over control of the battle to the stationary unit , the stationary unit initiates and clears calls for all fires forward of its location , while the 26 Calvary Regiment executed its rear with passage of lines . The 91st division , recently attached to the North Luzon Force and held in reserve , sent the 91st Regimental Combat Team to reinforce the 71st division by taking up a position just north of Puzzle Rubio along the road .

The first attack of the morning was made by the Japanese 47th Infantry Regiment against the 71st division , who’s artillery held up their advance until noon . Reinforced by the 48th reconnaissance and fourth tank regiments , Japanese directed close air support on their positions , forcing the 71st to fall back toe a line in front of the town of Poos Arrobio , where they were to link up with the 91st Regimental Combat Team , already in place after a hasty meeting of the American commanders .

The 26 Cavalry Regiment was then ordered to retire to been alone in and set up an outpost for the division to fall back through . Should it become necessary . The Japanese entered the town of season around 1900 while the 26 Calvary Regiment moved south and the 91st combat team prepared their defense outside pose Arrobio . Later that same night , Japanese attacked the 91st and secured the town , placing them in position to seize the critical bridges across the egg . No river to the south . General Wainwright , recognizing the staggering pace of the Japanese advance , realize that McArthur’s plan to repulse the enemy on the loose on beaches was no longer viable . Intending to strengthen his right flank long enough to prepare a counter attack , he requested permission from UCF headquarters to direct his soldiers to withdraw behind the Magno River .

With his request approved and while preparing his plan of attack , he received a call from headquarters notifying him that MacArthur it scrapped his defense plan and put the original war plan Orange into effect , Wainwright later wrote in his memoirs . It was a bitter pill to swallow for war plan Orange Number three meant the last ditch the long ago planned desperation withdrawal to Baton . That was not all MacArthur , I learned was about to leave Manila . Take his headquarters to Keurig . Adore soldiers . World is where he is fighting . Mine was falling to pieces . Wainwright could not have known it at the time . The MacArthur’s decision to revert the war plan Orange and fall back to Baton would have set homeless timetable enough that it would delay Japanese war plans .

Across the entire South Pacific . Christmas Eve arrived with the landing of Japan’s Lamone Bay Force , 322 kilometers to the south of the Lingayen Gulf , under the command of Lieutenant General Suma Morioka , coming ashore with 7000 soldiers of the 16th division at three different locations that could not have picked a better moment to attack , having been denied permission to move any artillery . Defending the Western approach to Manila , the South Luzon force was also in the process of repositioning its maneuver forces when the Japanese began landing . The first attack came a Taliban where elements of the first Regiment , Philippine first regular division , defended against the enemy by laying down effective inflating fire . By 08 30 Japanese had seized my album and forced the defenders to fall back eight kilometers to the west .

There they vigorously defended their position , delaying the enemy’s further advance . Further south , at the town of C on the second landing force came ashore at 0 700 met with little resistance . The Japanese then divided their forces , advancing elements along the Manila Railroad towards Iowa’s Bay , while other units move south to link up with the community attachment currently marching up Route one Along some a long day , the third and main landing force came ashore south of Antimony . We’re engaged with company , A 52nd Infantry Regiment , Philippine 51st division .

Japanese seized the town at 1100 . A Japanese reconnaissance unit supported by light bombers also advanced to seize the town of Malik Bhai . Sustained attacks by enemy aircraft forced the defenders to fall back from the village and set up defensive positions 6.4 kilometers to the west near the town of Benny Han by the evening of the 24th , while still attempting to delay the enemy from advancing along Route one toward Pagdilao .

The defenders were overwhelmed and fell back under cover of darkness . Day ended with MacArthur ordering General Parker , South Luzon force commander toe , organize the Baton Defense Force and prepare the peninsula’s defenses . 24 December was a difficult day for the North Luzon forces . Well , with the Japanese already advancing on the egg no river , the 26th Calvary Regiment attempted to delay them north and west of been alone in mounting a fierce defense , 26 stopped the first attack made by the Imperial Japanese Army’s fourth Tank Regiment tanks then swung to the west to bypass the 26th , but the Calvary counterattack and the Japanese were once again unable to advance .

Japanese then sent up more tanks in the second for most a regiment as reinforcements . Let’s put the cavalry at serious risk , but they were too deeply engaged to break contact . General Wainwright , who was in been alone in when the heavy fighting began , ordered Colonel Pierce and his 26 Calvary Regiment now reduced only 450 soldiers to fight a delaying action while falling back southeast from the egg no river to tie you For more than four hours , the outnumbered calvary delayed the enemy until finally leaving been alone in to the Japanese around 15 30 by the end of Christmas Eve 1941 Japanese , Lingayen , Gulf and Lemon Bay forces at both established their beachheads secured .

Their initial objectives on were in positions to the north and south to advance on Manila and it strategically important harbor . Mhm . I’m going I the Whistler know many things for I walk by night way interrupt our previously scheduled program to bring you this important news bulletin . Japanese soldiers have seized control of the Philippines capital city of Manila and are marching against our remaining forces dug in on Bataan . As a result , President Roosevelt has ordered General Douglas MacArthur toe lead the territory immediately without the ability to send supplies and reinforcements or to rescue those soldiers remaining behind there . Now , left to rely more than ever on their skills , encouraged to survive . Yeah , e a lot of fun . E Okay . Yeah . These people know how toe work the kind of people that idolize this American because he stands for everything we promised and are doing for the Philippines.

 

Note: Some wording errors in transcript.

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